Jost offers Highly Bioavailable Magnesium Compounds for Supplements
Magnesium is a nutrient that is vital to energy supply and utilization in the body. It is required to help the body produce energy, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Maintaining these functions is vital to several systems in the human body. Deficiencies lead to serious health issues.
Studies have shown that the average American male gets about three fourths of the RDI of magnesium eating a regular diet. Based on this knowledge alone, supplementation with dietary supplements containing magnesium seems crucial to maintaining good health1. The Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for magnesium (Mg) is 400 mg/day for adult males with slightly lower amounts for women and children.
Researchers have determined that lower levels of magnesium in the blood may lead to metabolic malfunctions such as diabetes. Researchers also have demonstrated that the impaired kidney function connected with diabetes might explain the higher levels of magnesium in the urine, which combined with insufficient magnesium intake, causes the high blood sugar levels associated with the disease. The mineral is required to facilitate energy production by the body and plays a critical role in function such as protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation.
Magnesium is a vital nutrient and is the active mineral in at least 300 known enzymes in the human body2,3,4. Magnesium is very important for heart function as it is known to be required for the electrical functions of the heart to keep a regular beat and for maintaining healthy blood pressures.
Further studies have shown that diabetics do not have enough of this vital mineral5 and that magnesium actually helps control blood glucose6,7 and has been found to regulate and improve blood sugar control. It plays a vital role in the secretion and function of insulin and is necessary for insulin to open cell membranes for glucose and helps the body digest, absorb, and utilize proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
Jost Chemical produces several magnesium compounds for supplementation that are chelated and offer high bioavailability, including8, 9, 10, 11, 12:
- Magnesium citrate
- Magnesium lactate
- Magnesium gluconate
- Magnesium phosphate di- and tribasic
- Magnesium aspartate
- Magnesium malate
- Magnesium ascorbate
- Magnesium glycinate
Jost Chemical also produces magnesium sulfate, which is ionic and soluble and may not be as bioavailable. (It is more commonly used as a laxative.) As with all Jost Chemical products, the magnesium compounds are pure and follow the appropriate USP, NF, and FCC monographs.
Jost Chemical Products — Magnesium
|Salt||Solubility %1||Metal Content %||Taste|
|Magnesium Ascorbate x-Hydrate||72||6.1–6.6||Neutral, slightly tart|
|Magnesium Citrate Tribasic Anhydrous||15||14.5–16.4||Neutral|
|Magnesium Aspartate Dibasic Anhydrous||14.5||14.2–15.7||Strong|
|Magnesium Gluconate Hydrate||8||5.7–6.0||Slightly tart|
|Magnesium Lactate Anhydrous||3.5||11.8–12.2||Mild, sweet, slightly spicy|
|Magnesium Lactate Dihydrate||3.3–16.7100||10.0–10.4||Mild, sweet, slightly spicy|
|Magnesium Malate Trihydrate||2||11.3–11.8||Neutral|
|Magnesium Citrate Tribasic x-Hydrate||0.4–2.895||11.2–12.0||Neutral|
|Magnesium Phosphate Dibasic Trihydrate||Slightly soluble||13.4–14.0||Neutral|
|Magnesium Phosphate Tribasic Pentahydrate||Insoluble||20.2–20.9||Neutral|
Several of these salts are water soluble (aspartate, citrate, gluconate, lactate, ascorbate, and malate). These can be used where the end product is a liquid and needs solubility. The hydrated citrate and phosphates are insoluble and used more in dry powder or tableted products. When mixed with Ca Citrate salts, they tend to solidify in water solutions.
Jost has recently introduced magnesium glycinate (also known as magnesium bis-glycinate). Magnesium glycinate is a water-soluble magnesium salt that is known for delivery very high levels of magnesium absorption and bioavailability and is considered, by some experts, as one of the best-absorbed forms of this mineral and the most-gentle on the stomach13. Studies indicate that magnesium glycinate may promote better sleep as well14. Glycinate salts are derived from the nonessential amino acid called glycine that provides a calming effect on the brain. In a 2011 Journal of Pharmacological Sciences study, rats that were given glycine had higher plasma and cerebrospinal fluid glycine concentrations and experienced a reduction in core body temperature. Lower body temperatures are known to promote sleep15.
Jost has developed a unique calcium magnesium citrate co-salt using a proprietary process to produce. This co-salt contains calcium and magnesium in a 2:1 Ca:Mg molar ratio. The micronized product will prove beneficial to customers that desire aqueous suspensions of Ca and Mg with excellent mouth feel and unmatched suspension stability. It has been reported that dry blends of calcium citrate and magnesium citrate micronized powders combined and slurried in water (20 – 30% w/w) display extensive thickening, solidification and/or hardening. The two citrate salts react in the aqueous phase and precipitate a unique compound whose suspension is extremely thixotropic. This resulting mixture does not remain fluid and completely solidifies over time, providing difficult if not impossible dosing from the finished goods container. The solidification process is generally slow; however, experimental data demonstrates rapid acceleration of this reaction when heat (sterilization) is applied to the system. Jost’s calcium magnesium citrate co-salt stays in suspension and therefore alleviates solidification, hardening and flowability issues, even over an extended period of time.
Granular calcium magnesium citrate will be most beneficial to customers that desire a directly compressible magnesium source for tablet manufacturing. Typically, magnesium salts are very difficult to tablet. It is with great enthusiasm that we report the compressibility of calcium magnesium citrate co-salt exceeds that of Jost Chemical’s industry leading calcium citrate. Also noteworthy is the superior compression of calcium magnesium citrate compared to a dry blend of calcium citrate and magnesium citrate.
See a full list of Jost Magnesium product offerings here.
Read more about how Jost Chemical’s mineral salts, such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, support healthy living—in this white paper: The Importance of Minerals in the Long Term Health of Humans.
1. Bailey RL, Fulgoni III VL, Keast DR, Dwyer JD. Dietary supplement use is associated with high intakes of minerals from food sources. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1376-81. [PubMed abstract]
2. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.
3. Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD, eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2010:527-37.
4. Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore, Mass: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012:159-75.
5. Sales CH, Pedrosa LF, Lima JG, Lemos TM, Colli C. Influence of magnesium status and magnesium intake on the blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 31.
6. Larsson SC, Wolk A. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med 2007;262:208-14. [PubMed abstract]
7. Rodriguez-Moran M, Simental Mendia LE, Zambrano Galvan G, Guerrero-Romero F. The role of magnesium in type 2 diabetes: a brief based-clinical review. Magnes Res 2011;24:156-62. [PubMed abstract]
8. Ranade VV, Somberg JC. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humans. Am J Ther 2001;8:345-57. [PubMed abstract]
9. Firoz M, Graber M. Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations. Magnes Res 2001;14:257-62. [PubMed abstract]
10. Mühlbauer B, Schwenk M, Coram WM, Antonin KH, Etienne P, Bieck PR, Douglas FL. Magnesium-L-aspartate-HCl and magnesium-oxide: bioavailability in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;40:437-8. [PubMed abstract]
11. Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, Pak CY. Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide. J Am Coll Nutr 1990;9:48-55. [PubMed abstract]
12. Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M. Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomized, double-blind study. Mag Res 2003;16:183-91. [PubMed abstract]
13.Medical News Today, January 22, 2017
14. “How to be Well: The Everyday Actions, Reliable Rituals, and Proven Tactics of the Healthiest and Happiest People,” 2018
15. J Pharmacol Sci 118, 145 – 148 (2012)