Sodium acetate protects against nicotine-induced excess hepatic lipid in male rats by suppressing xanthine oxidase activityAbstract:
Fatty liver is the hepatic consequence of chronic insulin resistance (IR) and related syndromes. It is mostly accompanied by inflammatory and oxidative molecules. Increased activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) exerts both inflammatory and oxidative effects and has been implicated in metabolic derangements including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) elicit beneficial metabolic alterations in IR and related syndromes. In the present study, we evaluated the preventive effects of a SCFA, acetate, on nicotine-induced dysmetabolism and fatty liver. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (n = 6/group): vehicle-treatment (p.o.), nicotine-treated (1.0 mg/kg; p.o.), sodium acetate-treated (200 mg/kg; p.o.) and nicotine + sodium acetate-treated groups. The treatments lasted for 8 weeks. IR was estimated by oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment of IR. Plasma and hepatic free fatty acid, triglyceride (TG), glutathione peroxidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), XO and uric acid (UA) were measured. Nicotine exposure resulted in reduced body weight, liver weight, visceral adiposity, glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity. Conversely, exposure to nicotine increased fasting plasma glucose, lactate, IR, plasma and hepatic TG, free fatty acid, TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio, lipid peroxidation, liver function enzymes, plasma and hepatic UA, XO and ADA activities. However, plasma and hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-dependent antioxidant defense was not affected by nicotine. Concomitant treatment with acetate ameliorated nicotine-induced effects. Taken together, these results indicate that nicotine exposure leads to excess deposition of lipid in the liver by enhancing XO activity. The results also imply that acetate confers hepatoprotection and is accompanied by decreased XO activity.
PMID 31857090 / E O Dangana, T E Omolekulo, E D Areola, K S Olaniyi, A O Soladoye, L A Olatunji