No. 376-Magnesium Sulphate for Fetal NeuroprotectionAbstract:
Objective: The objective is to provide guidelines for the use of antenatal magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection of the preterm infant.
Options: Antenatal magnesium sulphate administration should be considered for fetal neuroprotection when women present at ≤33 + 6 weeks with imminent preterm birth, defined as a high likelihood of birth because of active labour with cervical dilatation ≥4 cm, with or without preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes, and/or planned preterm birth for fetal or maternal indications. There are no other known fetal neuroprotective agents.
Outcomes: The outcomes measured are the incidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and neonatal death.
Evidence: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in December 2017, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (magnesium sulphate, cerebral palsy, preterm birth). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and relevant observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2017. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.
Values: The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1).
Benefits, harms, and costs: Antenatal magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection reduces the risk of “death or CP” (relative risk [RR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.98; 4 trials, 4446 infants), “death or moderate-severe CP” (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.73-0.99; 3 trials, 4250 infants), “any CP” (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.55-0.91; 4, trials, 4446 infants), “moderate-to-severe CP” (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43-0.84; 3 trials, 4250 infants), and “substantial gross motor dysfunction” (inability to walk without assistance) (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43-0.83; 3 trials, 4287 women) at 2 years of age. Results were consistent between trials and across the meta-analyses. There is no anticipated significant increase in health care-related costs because women eligible to receive antenatal magnesium sulphate will be judged to have imminent preterm birth.
Validation: Australian National Clinical Practice Guidelines were published in March 2010 by the Antenatal Magnesium Sulphate for Neuroprotection Guideline Development Panel. Antenatal magnesium sulphate was recommended for fetal neuroprotection in the same dosage as recommended in these guidelines. However, magnesium sulphate was recommended only at <30 weeks gestation, based on 2 considerations. First, no single gestational age subgroup was considered to show a clear benefit. Second, in the face of uncertainty, the committee felt it was prudent to limit the impact of their clinical practice guidelines on resource allocation. In March 2010, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued a Committee Opinion on magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection. It stated that “the available evidence suggests that magnesium sulfate given before anticipated early preterm birth reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in surviving infants.” No official opinion was given on a gestational age cut-off, but it was recommended that physicians develop specific guidelines around the issues of inclusion criteria, dosage, concurrent tocolysis, and monitoring in accordance with 1 of the larger trials. Similarly, the World Health Organization also strongly recommends use of magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection in its 2015 recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes but cites further researching on dosing regimen and re-treatment.
PMID 30879485 / Laura A Magee, Dane A De Silva, Diane Sawchuck, Anne Synnes, Peter von Dadelszen