Microwave processing of calcium phosphate and magnesium phosphate based orthopedic bioceramics: A state-of-the-art reviewAbstract:
The main theme of this paper is to review microwave-assisted synthesis and processing of calcium and magnesium phosphate bioceramics. Microwave processing of advanced materials has been an active field of research for the last three decades and has been already reviewed in the literature. Microwave processing of bioceramics is being pursued for almost the same period of time. Unfortunately, to the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any comprehensive review in the literature. Our group has been a significant contributor to the field, and we feel that it is an appropriate time for reviewing the state-of-the-art of the field. The paper is divided into several sections. After rationalizing the motivation behind writing this paper in the introduction, the second section builds on some fundamental aspects of microwave-matter interactions. The third section, representing the synthesis aspects, is subdivided into five sub-sections focusing on various calcium and magnesium phosphates in both crystalline and amorphous forms. The fourth section focuses on magnesium phosphate-based bioceramics. The fifth and the sixth section describe results on the utility of microwave assistance in developing multi-functional coatings on medical implants and orthopedic cements respectively. The subsequent section reviews results on microwave sintering of calcium and magnesium phosphates. The paper concludes with remarks on unresolved issues and future directions of research. It is expected that this comprehensive review on the interdisciplinary topic will further propel the exploration of other novel applications of microwave technology in processing biomaterials by a diverse group of scientists and engineers. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: 1. This review highlights the broad-spectrum capabilities of microwave applications in processing orthopedic bioceramics. 2. The article covers “processing” in the broadest sense of the word, comprising of material synthesis, sintering, coating formation, and setting of orthopedic cements. It also expands beyond conventional calcium phosphates to include the emergent family of magnesium phosphates. 3. In vitro/in vivo responses of microwave-processed bioceramics are discussed thus providing an integral understanding of biological aspects of these materials. 4. The comprehensive review on this interdisciplinary topic will help researchers in various disciplines to appreciate the significance and usefulness of microwaves in biomaterials processing. Further, we also believe that it will propel the exploration of other novel applications of microwave technology in the biomaterials sector.
PMID 32447068 / Prabaha Sikder, Yufu Ren, Sarit B Bhaduri