In vivo redox imaging of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice using Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imagingAbstract:
In ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown cause, diagnosis of the degree and location of colitis at an early stage is required to control the symptoms. Changes in redox status, including the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), have been associated with ulcerative colitis in humans and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in rodents. In this study, the in vivo redox status of colons of DSS-induced colitis mice were monitored by Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI), and the relationship between redox status and colitis development was investigated. Colitis was induced by administering 5% DSS in drinking water to male Slc:ICR mice, which are a strain classified as closed colony outbred mice (5-week-old, 25-30 g). On the 3rd day of the DSS challenge, when no symptoms of colitis were displayed, the contrast decays of 15N-CmP and 14N-CxP tended to show enhancement in the whole colon and were not altered by DMSO. On the 5th day of the DSS challenge, with histological damage of the rectum being displayed, the contrast decay of 15N-CmP was significantly enhanced not only in the rectum, but also in the proximal colon, and this was suppressed by DMSO. On the 7th day of the DSS challenge, with the mice displaying severe colitis symptoms, the image contrasts of 15N-labeled 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (15N-CmP) and 14N-labeled 3-carboxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (14N-CxP) showed much faster decay than those of healthy mice, while the increased decays of both probes were restored by the membrane-permeable reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Image differencing between the decay rate images of 15N-CmP and 14N-CxP showed the DSS-induced redox imbalance spreading over the whole colon, and a histogram of the difference image showed a smaller peak and broader distribution with the DSS treatment. These data indicate that ROS are produced intracellularly in the distal and proximal colon in the initiation stage of DSS-induced colitis, and that ROS are produced intracellularly and extracellularly in the advanced stage of DSS-induced colitis.
PMID 30928473 / Keiji Yasukawa, Akinobu Hirago, Kazunori Yamada, Xin Tun, Kenji Ohkuma, Hideo Utsumi