Geographic determination of coffee beans using multi-element analysis and isotope ratios of boron and strontium.
This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of using chemical and isotopic compositions of coffee beans to identify their geographic origins. Twenty-one Coffea arabica beans collected from 14 countries in 3 major coffee-producing regions, Africa, America and Asia, were analysed for multi-element of B, Rb, Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn and Zn, as well as isotopic compositions of B and Sr. Our results demonstrate that the geographic origin of coffee beans could be classified based on concentrations of Rb, Sr and Ba. However, the isotope ratios of B and Sr provide more sensitive information for the growth localities. Combined with literature data, this study indicates that B and Sr isotopes are excellent indicators of the origin of coffee beans.