Effect of microencapsulated ferrous sulfate particle size on Cheddar cheese composition and qualityAbstract:
Iron-fortified Cheddar cheese was manufactured with large microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (LMFS; 700-1,000 µm in diameter) or small microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (SMFS; 220-422 µm in diameter). Cheeses were aged 90 d. Compositional, chemical, and sensory characteristics were compared with control cheeses, which had no ferrous sulfate added. Compositional analysis included fat, protein, ash, moisture, as well as divalent cations iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay was conducted to determine lipid oxidation. A consumer panel consisting of 101 participants evaluated the cheeses for flavor, texture, appearance, and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. Results showed 66.0% iron recovery for LMFS and 91.0% iron recovery for SMFS. Iron content was significantly increased from 0.030 mg of Fe/g in control cheeses to 0.134 mg of Fe/g of cheese for LMFS and 0.174 mg of Fe/g of cheese for SMFS. Fat, protein, ash, moisture, magnesium, zinc, and calcium contents were not significantly different when comparing iron-fortified cheeses with the control. Iron fortification did not increase lipid oxidation; however, iron fortification negatively affected Cheddar cheese sensory attributes, particularly the LMFS fortified cheese. Microencapsulation of ferrous sulfate failed to mask iron’s distinct taste, color, and odor. Overall, SMFS showed better results compared with LMFS for iron retention and sensory evaluation in Cheddar cheese. Results of this study show that size of the microencapsulated particle is important in the retention of the iron in the cheese and its sensory attributes. This study provides new information on the importance of particle size with microencapsulated nutrients.
PMID 29729915 / A Arce, Z Ustunol