Anti-inflammatory effects of calcium citrate in RAW 264.7cells via suppression of NF-κB activation.Abstract:
Here we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of calcium citrate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effects of calcium citrate were investigated by assessing pro-inflammatory factors (NO, ROS, NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α). Treatment of cells with calcium citrate (10-100μM) significantly reduced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Calcium citrate was further shown to inhibit NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7cells. The expression levels of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB were also suppressed by treatment with calcium citrate. Calcium citrate was furthermore found to significantly inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in response to LPS-stimulation. These findings demonstrate that calcium citrate may be an effective anti-inflammatory agent.
PMID 25434759 / Choi EY, Kim HJ, Han JS